Diseases & Conditions
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which the lining of your joints becomes inflamed, causing pain, swelling, and stiffness. It is an autoimmune disease because it occurs when your immune system, which normally fights against infection, starts destroying healthy joints. Severe rheumatoid arthritis can be very painful and even cause deformity in a joint. It also affects your ability to perform routine activities.
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an autoimmune disease that includes both psoriasis and a related form of arthritis. It is a form of inflammatory arthritis that causes pain, swelling and sometimes damage to any joint in the body.
The term ankylosis stands for loss of mobility of the spine, whereas spondylitis means inflammation of the spine. Therefore, ankylosing spondylitis is a condition where chronic inflammation of spine and sacroiliac joint, results in complete fusion of the vertebrae leading to pain and stiffness in the spine. Sacroiliac joints are present in the lower back where the sacrum part of the vertebrae joins the iliac bones.
Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of arthritis. It occurs most often in older people. This disease affects the tissue covering the ends of bones in a joint called cartilage.
Gout is a very common, painful form of arthritis which causes swelling, redness and stiffness of the joints. Gout is caused by increased levels of uric acid in the tissues and blood from abnormal metabolism.
Back, Hip & Shoulder Pain
Back pain or backache is the pain felt in the back that may originate from muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine. Back pain is one of the most common medical problems experienced by most people at some time in their life.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
SLE is a chronic auto-immune disorder affecting mainly joints, kidneys and skin. It is seen more often in young adult population and is more likely to occur in women than men.
Sjogren's syndrome is an auto-immune disease caused by an attack of the immune system on the body’s glands that produce tears and saliva. The cause of the disease is not known. The presence of certain genes in an individual increases the risk of the disease.
Degenerative Disc Disease
Degenerative disc disease (DDD) refers to gradual deterioration of the intervertebral discs between the vertebrae. DDD is a misnomer as it is not actually a disease but a condition that affects the strength, resiliency and structural integrity of the intervertebral discs due to advancing age, trauma, injury, repetitive movement, improper posture, or poor body mechanics.
Scleroderma can occur in both adults and children but is more often seen in females in the age group of 25 to 50 years. The exact cause of scleroderma is not known. An abnormal immune response of the body against its own tissue is known to cause sceloderma.
Myositis is a rare auto-immune disease in which the body’s immune system attacks its own skeletal muscles causing inflammation and progressive weakening of these muscles.
Vasculitis is an autoimmune disorder where the immune system attacks its own blood vessels causing inflammation. This results in narrowing or closing of the blood vessels.
Polymyalgia Rheumatica is a rheumatic disorder characterized by pain, swelling, and inflammation in the joints. It is more often seen in women above 50 years of age.
Antiphospholipid syndrome is a condition in which the immune system attacks certain normal blood proteins. It can cause clots in the arteries and veins leading to pregnancy complications, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and damage to organs such as the lungs, brain and kidneys. There is no known cure for antiphospholipid syndrome, but certain medications can be prescribed to reduce the risk of developing the condition.
Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized by a heightened sense of pain all over the body. The type of pain is comparable to arthritic or severe muscular pain and is usually accompanied by extreme fatigue. However, fibromyalgia does not cause any noticeable tissue injury and the condition does not progress over time.
Tendons are fibrous cords that anchor muscles to bones. Tendinitis is a condition in which a tendon becomes inflamed or irritated. Although any tendon can be affected, commonly the tendons around the joints such as the shoulders, elbows, wrists, knees and ankles are involved.
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome (RSDS)
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a condition causing various symptoms such as burning pain and swelling of an extremity, warmth, sweating, skin flushing or discoloration and shiny skin. It is also called complex regional pain syndrome or causalgia. It may be triggered by various conditions such as arthritis, injury, surgery, shingles, nerve entrapment, brain conditions such as stroke and certain drugs. RSDS is best treated in the early stages.
Raynaud’s phenomenon is a condition characterized by colour changes in the digits mostly on exposure to cold, but also due to smoking or stress. It occurs due to spasming and constriction of the blood vessels reducing blood supply to the area. The digits turn pale, then blue and finally red as the vessels reopen. Raynaud’s phenomenon may be associated with rheumatic disease.
Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA)
Giant cell arteritis, also known as temporal arteritis, is the inflammation of certain arteries that occurs in adults who are usually over the age of 50. The temporal artery that runs along the side of the head in the temple area is commonly affected. The condition can cause headaches, facial pain, joint pain, fever, and problems with vision. The exact cause of the condition is unclear. The condition may be difficult to identify because of the wide range of symptoms. Diagnosis may be made by studying a biopsy of the temporal artery and performing a blood test. The condition can usually be treated using corticosteroid medication.